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Design Patterns

In software engineering, a software design pattern is a general, reusable solution to a commonly occurring problem within a given context in software design. It is not a finished design that can be transformed directly into source or machine code. Rather, it is a description or template for how to solve a problem that can be used in many different situations. Design patterns are formalized best practices that the programmer can use to solve common problems when designing an application or system.

What is Gang of Four (GOF)? In 1994, four authors Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson and John Vlissides published a book titled Design Patterns - Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software which initiated the concept of Design Pattern in Software development. These authors are collectively known as Gang of Four (GOF). According to these authors design patterns are primarily based on the following principles of object orientated design.

  • Program to an interface not an implementation

  • Favor object composition over inheritance


Types of Design Patterns


As per the design pattern reference book Design Patterns - Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software , there are 23 design patterns which can be classified in three categories: Creational, Structural and Behavioral patterns.

Creational Patterns These design patterns provide a way to create objects while hiding the creation logic, rather than instantiating objects directly using new operator. This gives program more flexibility in deciding which objects need to be created for a given use case. Structural Patterns

These design patterns concern class and object composition. Concept of inheritance is used to compose interfaces and define ways to compose objects to obtain new functionalities. Behavioral Patterns

These design patterns are specifically concerned with communication between objects.



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